With the objective of improvement and a more broadly approach to the management of waste, a new national legislation was passed in Brazil. According to the waste hierarchy which promotes the obligation of waste treatment before landfilling and includes reutilization, recycling, composting and energetic recovery of solid waste, only material without any possibility of recovery, so called rejects, shall be landfilled.

These obligations create a positive value chain for municipal solid waste and at the same time promote climate protection and the preservation of natural resources as well as enable economic market growth, since they create different streams for reception and distribution of resources from secondary materials originated from materials before their disposal.

The formation of a new, more complex and dynamic market also imposes challenges to public and private managers. Efforts such as the training of human resources, choice of technological route, feasible business plans, financing, acquisition and transfer of technologies, environmental licensing, management, operational efficiency and quality of by-products are a few of the current demands for the consolidation of the national expertise for the scenario that includes treatment and valorization as an integral part of a sustainable management of municipal solid waste. In this sense, the promotion of a sustainable management of waste goes far beyond the borders of traditional urban cleaning services passes simple technology discussions and highlights the need for a chain intervention addressing different segments of society for environmental preservation and climate protection.